Depression as a Risk Factor for Coronary Artery Disease: Myth or Verity
Objectives: To determine the frequency of depression in patients with ischemic heart disease, subgroup analysis of prevalence of depression in patients with heart failure, acute STEMI and non STEMI-ACS and the effect of hospital stay and treatment of primary cardiac illness on depression scores.
Methodology: All patients with heart failure, acute STEMI and non STEMI-ACS, presenting to cardiology clinics over a period of March-August, 2016 with a pre-calculated sample size were enrolled into the study by consecutive sampling. HAM-D questionnaire was administered at the time of hospital admission and discharge. SPSS was used for data analysis.
Results: A total of 102 patients were included in the study out of which 47 (46%) were females and 55 (54%) were males. The mean age of the study population was 49.5±12 years. At the time of admission, 91/102 (89.2%) patients were found to be depressed, 32 (31.4%) had mild depression, 29 (28.4%) had moderate depression, 10 (9.8%) had severe depression and an alarming number (20 i.e. 19.6%) patients had very severe depression. At the time of discharge, 82/102 (80.3%) patients were found to be depressed, 35 (34.3%) had mild depression, 31 (30.4%) had moderate depression, 12 (11.8%) had severe depression and only 4 (3.9%) had very severe depression. The mean change in HAM-D score during hospital admission was -3.24±4 (Maximum +26, minimum -23). The difference in depression scores during hospital stay tended to inversely correlate with length of hospital stay. A greater proportion of patients with the diagnosis of STEMI had a severe or very severe depression.
Conclusion: Depression was found to be alarmingly prevalent in acute coronary syndrome affectees and hospital stay and treatment led to a mean fall in the depression scores.