In-Vitro Synergy of Aqueous Garlic Extract with Ciprofloxacin Against Clinical Isolates of Salmonella Typhi


  • Saima Inam Assistant Professor Pathology Sharif Medical and Dental college, Lahore
  • Faiza Javed Assistant Professor Pathology Sharif Medical and Dental college. Lahore
  • Farhan Rasheed Assistant Professor Pathology Allama Iqbal Medical college, Lahore
  • Abdul Hannan Microbiology Department University of Health Sciences Lahore



Aqueous garlic extract, Microdilution checkerboard titration technique, Fractional inhibitory concentration index


Objective: To detemine the emerging issue of treatment failures in typhoid by evaluating the activity of a new combination of aqueous garlic extract and ciprofloxacin. 
Study Place and Duration: Department of Microbiology, University of Health Sciences Lahore, Pakistan from April 2013-April 2014
Methodology: Synergism of garlic with ciprofloxacin against   Typhi was assessed to solve the critical issue of treatment failure with the best known anti-typhoid drugs till now i-e fluoroquinolones. Twenty five ciprofloxacin susceptible Typhi isolates were selected. Aqueous garlic extract (AGE) was prepared and was screened for antibacterial activity by agar well diffusion method which exhibited an inhibition zone of 25.36±1.60 mm against 1 tested isolate.
Results: Minimum Inhibitory concentration 90 (MIC90) of ciprofloxacin and AGE was > 0.25µg/ml and > 20mg/ml respectively as determined by micro broth dilution method. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853) was used as a reference strain. Synergism of the combination was assessed using microdilution checkerboard titration technique. The fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICIs) for all the isolates were >0.5 <4.
Conclusion: Thus, ciprofloxacin and Aqueous garlic extract (AGE) showed significant antibacterial activity individually against Typhi but Cipro-AGE combination did not prove to be synergistic against Typhi nor against ATCC Pseudomonas aeruginosa 27853.
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