The Preferred Learning Styles Among the Undergraduate Dental Students at Foundation University College of Dentistry, Islamabad


  • Falahat Nasir School of Dentistry, SZABMU
  • Faiza Gulfam Senior lecturer, Oral Biology, Foundation University College of Dentistry, Islamabad
  • Ali Ayub HOD and vice principal, orthodontics, HBS Medical and Dental College, Islamabad
  • Zainab Abdullah HOD DME, Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto Medical University, Islamabad
  • Salwan Ghani Senior lecturer Oral Biology, Women Medical and Dental College, Abbottabad
  • Hidayat Ullah Associate Professor Radiology, Frontier Medical & Dental College Abbottabad



Learning, Medical education, Teaching


Objective: To determine the preferred learning styles of undergraduate dental students at the Foundation University College of Dentistry, Islamabad.

Methodology: A cross sectional study was conducted at Foundation University College of Dentistry, Islamabad in January 2020 over a period of 2 weeks. On the basis of VARK questionnaire, learning styles of first to final year undergraduate dental students were analysed. The questionnaire consisted of 16 items and identified four different learning styles: visual, aural, reading/writing and kinaesthetic. A total of 132 students were included in this study. The filled out questionnaires were scored according to the VARK tool and then statistically analysed to determine the distribution of different learning styles among students.

Results: A total of 126 students out of 132 responded with the response rate of 95.5%. The results showed that the frequency of a single learning style (unimodal) in the study population was 63.5% while the frequency of a combination of different learning styles (multimodal) was 36.5%. The frequencies of bimodal, trimodal and quadmodal learning styles were 26.1%, 6.9% and 3.5% respectively. Among the unimodal learning style kinaesthetic topped the list with a frequency of 27.9% while among the  bimodal learning styles auro-kinaesthetic was more frequent accounting for 10.9%.

Conclusion: The predominant learning style in our study population was unimodal and had a frequency of 63.5% with kinaesthetic being the chief preference making a major chunk of 27.9% followed by aural learners making up to 20.4%. In bimodal learning styles the most frequent in our study population was auro-kinaesthetic with a frequency of 10.9%.






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