Frequency of Refractive Error in Patients with Squint


  • Nazish Rizwan Assistant Professor, Sindh Institute of Ophthalmology & Visual Sciences
  • Neelam Nizamani Senior medical resident, Department of General Surgery, Jinnah postgraduate Medical Centre Karachi
  • Asra Talpur Assistant Professor, Department of General Surgery, LUMHS Jamshoro/Hyderabad
  • Aamir Hussain Senior Registrar, Department of General Surgery, Sulema Roshan Medical college Tando Adam
  • Shah Nawaz Channa Consultant Surgeon, Department of General Surgery, LUMHS Jamshoro/Hyderabad
  • Naraindas Senior Registrar, Department of General Surgery, Sulema Roshan Medical college Tando Adam



Squint, Refractive errors, Hypermetropia


Objective: To determine the frequency of refractive errors in patients with squint at a tertiary care Hospital.

Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Department of Ophthalmology, Liaquat University Eye Hospital in Hyderabad from May 2020 to October 2020. A total of 128 patients either exotropia or esotropia were included in this study. Auto refraction and Hirschberg reflex test was done. A refractive error of ?+2 was taken as hypermetropia and ? -2 was taken as Myopia. This information was entered in the proforma and analyzed using SPSS version 20.

Results: The average age of the patients was 6.26±3.09 years. There were 73(5.03%) male and 55(42.97%) female. Hypermetropia was observed in 47.66% (61/128) cases while myopia in 11.72% (15/128) cases. Furthermore, the frequency of hypermetropia was found statistically insignificant according to age, gender, types of squint and Hirschberg reflex p-value (>0.05). Frequency of Myopia was found statistically insignificant across age groups, gender-wise and across different angles of the Hirschberg reflex-value (>0.05), while it was statically significant according to types of squint, (p-0.033).

Conclusion: Study revealed that the hypermetropia emerges as the most prevalent refractive error among the children assessed. It underscores the necessity for all these children to undergo cycloplegic refraction, with glasses being identified as the primary treatment approach. Mass screening initiatives are essential aimed at facilitating early identification and treatment of refractive errors.






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