Emerging Trends of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus: A Tertiary Care Hospital-Based Study


  • Sadia Ikram Associate Professor Pathology HBS Medical & Dental College, Islamabad
  • Saima Inam Associate Professor of Pathology, Sharif Medical and Dental College, Lahore
  • Fareeha shahid Senior Lecturer of Pathology, HBS Medical & Dental College, Islamabad
  • Aliya Aslam Associate Professor of Pathology, Azra Naheed Medical College, Lahore
  • Asma Inam Associate Professor of Pharmacology, Azra Naheed Medical College, Lahore
  • Muhammad Ashraf Professor of Pathology, HBS Medical and Dental College, Islamabad


Objective: To analyze the frequency and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in a tertiary care hospital in Lahore, Pakistan.

Methodology: A retrospective study was conducted from October 2020 to December 2021 in a tertiary care hospital in Lahore, Pakistan. The clinical specimens meeting the inclusion criteria underwent processing in the microbiology section of a tertiary care hospital in Lahore, Pakistan, following the CLSI 2021 standards. Identification of all Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates was conducted using standard laboratory procedures. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed utilizing the modified Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method, with E-strips employed for vancomycin assessment.

Results: A total of 65 Staphylococcus aureus specimens were isolated. Among these, 49% were identified as Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The majority of MRSA isolates (56%) were found in males, and a significant proportion (59%) fell within the age range of 21-60 years. Pus specimens accounted for the highest frequency (78%) among all samples. Notably, all MRSA isolates exhibited 100% resistance to beta-lactam drugs and combination therapies such as penicillin, cephalosporin, carbapenem, and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid. Conversely, Linezolid demonstrated complete sensitivity, while Chloramphenicol showed a sensitivity rate of 93%. Fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides displayed a sensitivity of up to 50%. Additionally, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for vancomycin indicated sensitivity across all study isolates.

Conclusion: The study concluded that MRSA is continuously on the rise, with increasing resistance and limiting the antibiotic options for the treatment of these superbugs.






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