Assessment of the Predictors and Mortality in Patients of Acute on Chronic Liver Failure; A Prospective Study
Keywords:ACLF, mortality, etiology
Objective: To evaluate the predictors of short-term mortality in patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF).
Methodology: This prospective study was conducted at the gastroenterology department of the Asian Institute of Medical Sciences Sindh, Pakistan from January 2018 to December 2018. All the patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) aged more than 25 years and of either gender were included. A complete history was obtained including demographic profile and specifics on clinical characteristics (jaundice, ascites, gastro-intestinal bleed, grade of encephalopathy, records of vital parameters etc.). Serum electrolytes, viral serology, autoimmune profile, liver function tests, serum creatinine, prothrombin time, and INR were among the laboratory tests performed on each patient.
Results: A total of 99 patients were studied; their average age was 40.90+13.93 years; and there was a male predominance (73.5%). HCV and HBV+HDV were the most common etiological factors. According to the frequency of organ failure, hepatic failure was in 59.8% of the cases, renal failure was in 43.6% of the cases, CNS failure was in 38.5% of the cases, 41.0% of the cases had circulatory failure, coagulation failure was in 55.6% of the cases, and respiratory failure was seen in 17.1% of the cases. Overall, the 30-day mortality rate was 61.5%. Hepatic failure, renal failure, CNS failure, coagulation failure, SBP, and grading of ACLF were significantly associated with short-term survival rate (p= <0.05). While gender, etiology, circulatory failure and respiratory failure were statistically insignificant (p= >0.05). MELD score >28, CTP score >13, organ failure >3 and ACLF grade II and III were also highly significantly linked to short term survival rate (p-0.0001).
Conclusion: According to the study's findings, hepatic failure, renal failure, CNS failure, coagulation failure, and ACLF grading, CTP score > 13, MELD score > 28, and the presence of hepato-renal syndrome were found to be significant predictors of short-term mortality in patients with Acute On-Chronic Liver Failure (ACLF).
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