BCR ABL gene mutation in acute lymphoblastic leukemia
Objective: To determine the frequency of BCR-ABL gene mutation in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.
Methods: It is a cross sectional study carried out at the Department of Molecular Haematology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology between January 2018 to March 2021. All newly diagnosed patients of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia were included in the study while patients already on treatment and with secondary leukemia were excluded from the study.
Results: A total of 623 patients were included in the study. BCR-ABL gene was positive in 105 (16.8%) patients. A total of 96 (92%) were positive for BCR ABL p190 rearrangement and 9 (8%) were positive for BCR ABL p210 rearrangement. Mean age of patients was 21 years. The frequency of BCR ABL gene was positive in 72% males and 28% females. BCR-ABL positive ALL was associated with higher TLC count. CNS involvement was more commonly seen in BCR -ABL positive Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia. With increase in age, the chances of post induction remission decreased.
Conclusion: In our study population a frequency of 16.8% patients were BCR ABL1 positive in acute lymphoblastic leukemia. BCR- ABL gene mutation in ALL is more prevalent in young adults. Frequency of p190 rearrangement is more common than p210 BCR-ABL rearrangement. BCR-ABL positive ALL is more prevalent in males than in females.
Key words: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia, BCR- ABL gene rearrangmet
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