Celiac Disease and Glycemic Control Among Patients with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
Objective: To determine the frequency of celiac disease among type 1 diabetic patients and to compare the frequency of adequate glycemic control in patients having T1DM plus CD and T1DM alone.
Study Design: Cross-sectional study.
Place and Duration: Unit-II, Department of Medicine, Foundation University Medical College, Islamabad. from 16th June 2016 to 16th December 2016
Methodology: Patients were recruited through medical and diabetes OPDs and medical wards. All the relevant information was recorded on a Proforma. In all type 1 diabetics a sample of blood was sent to AFIP for the determination of Anti-tTG (IgA) antibodies; using a commercially available ELISA technique (Pharmacia Upjohn, Sweden) based on recombinant human tTG as antigen. The measuring range of this test is 0.1 - 100 U/ml. We used the cut-offs: anti-tTG IgA ≤ 10 U/ml were considered negative, > 10 U/ml was considered positive. The assay was a quantitative assay. On the same visit, another blood sample was sent for HbA1C estimation.
Results: Total 160 patients were included according to the inclusion criteria of the study. Mean age (years) in the study was 26.58+9.13. There were 83 (51.9) male and 77 (48.1) female patients who were included in the study according to the inclusion criteria. The frequency of celiac disease among type 1 diabetic patients was 42 (26.3) in the study whereas the frequency of adequate glycemic control in patients having T1DM plus CD and T1DM alone was 26 (61.9) and 31 (26.3) respectively.
Conclusion: The study concludes that the prevalence of celiac disease in type 1 diabetes mellitus in our own population is high. Furthermore, gluten-free diet effects on glycemic control of type 1 diabetic patients which in screening for celiac disease in type 1 diabetes mellitus patients and to decreased risk of complication of diabetes.