Correlation of Red Cell Distribution Width with Severity of Cardiovascular Diseases
Objectives: To determine the correlation of red cell distribution width (RDW) with severity of cardiovascular diseases.
Setting and duration of study: This study was conducted in the department of Pathology, Aziz Fatima Medical and Dental College, Faisalabad, over a period of one year from October 2019 to October 2020.
Subjects and Methods: Patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome, typical and atypical angina, or chest pain were selected for this study. A total of 150 participants were included in the study consisting of 75 patients of cardiovascular disease in cases group and 75 participants without any cardiovascular disease in control group. The details of clinical examination based on electrocardiography (ECG), echocardiography was noted in patients with and without cardiovascular disease. Venous blood sample was taken from antecubital vein through atraumatic puncture to assess the value of red cell distribution width (RDW) for all participants. All the patient in the study underwent trans radial or transfemoral rout coronary angiography using 5F optitorque catheter for trans radial rout or 6F Judkins catheters for transfemoral rout. All the patient had angiography within 24 hours of admission in the hospital.
Results: The patients who were diagnosed with CAD had significantly higher mean age (51.45 ± 11.29 years) as compared (44.56 ± 9.45 years) to group B without out CAD. There were 53 (70.67%) males in group A, and 42 (56%) males in group B. The rate of hypertension (61.33%) was significantly higher among patient who diagnosed with CAD. The mean value of RDW CV was found significantly (p-value < 0.05) raised among patients of CAD (14.36 ± 1.02vs. 13.52 ± 0.89). The RDW SD was also significantly higher in group A (43.67 ± 4.39 vs. 41.65 ± 3.46, p-value = 0.002) in comparison to group B. Age and male gender were found to be a significant (p-value < 0.05) contributor for CVD with an odds ratio of 1.18 and 3 respectively. It was found that RDW CV and RDW SD were independent and significant (p-value < 0.05) risk factor for CAD with an odds ratio of 5.31and 3.55.
Conclusion: RDW is an effective easily available marker for the assessment of severity of coronary artery disease and helps in risk stratification of CAD patients for further events.
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